Persian

Persian Inhaltsverzeichnis

Die persische Sprache ist eine plurizentrische Sprache in Zentral- und Südwestasien. Sie gehört zum iranischen Zweig der indogermanischen Sprachfamilie und ist Amtssprache in Iran, Afghanistan und Tadschikistan. Persian Definition: Something that is Persian belongs or relates to the ancient kingdom of Persia, or | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele. Persian Bedeutung, Definition Persian: 1. belonging to or relating to Iran, its people, or its language 2. a person from Iran 3. the main. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Persian im Online-Wörterbuch fofi.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). An Image Database of Persian Historical Documents from Iran and Central Asia up to the 20th Century. The Project aims at facilitating access to the growing.

Persian

Beginner's Persian (Iranian Farsi) with Online Audio (Hippocrene Beginner's) | Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für​. Persian Kitten. Trocken, Katze. Alleinfuttermittel für Katzen - Speziell für Perser-​Katzenwelpen (bis zum Monat). Verfügbar in. 2 kg. 4 kg. 10 kg. Online kaufen​. Persian Definition: Something that is Persian belongs or relates to the ancient kingdom of Persia, or | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele.

Persian - Testen Sie Ihren Wortschatz mit unseren lustigen Bild-Quiz.

Wählen Sie ein Wörterbuch aus. Von den altiranischen Dialekten sind nur Altpersisch und Avestisch ausreichend dokumentiert, die anderen Sprachen dieser Gruppe nur indirekt. Beispiele, die Perserreich enthalten, ansehen 22 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Wikipedia-Schwesterprojekte in persischer Sprache.

There is some discussion about this topic at: www. Until , the official name of the country currently known as Iran was Persia, though the Persian people have called their country Iran since the Sassanid period AD.

The language had evolved into what we known as Middle Persian by about BC, and was written with the Pahlavi , Manichaean and Avestan alphabets.

There are also ways of writing Persian with the Latin alphabet. In Tajikistan Tajik has been written with a version of Cyrillic alphabet since Between and it was written with a version of the Latin alphabet, and before then with the Perso-Arabic alphabet.

After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanian Empire in AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion, and the Arabic alphabet was adapted to write the Persian language.

The symbols for 4,5 and 6 are different from the standard numerals used for Arabic. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture.

New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca , a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least the 19th century.

This is the language of the 10th to 12th centuries, which continued to be used as literary language and lingua franca under the " Persianized " Turko-Mongol dynasties during the 12th to 15th centuries, and under restored Persian rule during the 16th to 19th centuries.

Persian during this time served as lingua franca of Greater Persia and of much of the Indian subcontinent. Despite Anatolia having been ruled at various times prior to the Middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the Sasanian Empire.

Centuries later, however, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire.

It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole "official language" under the Mughal emperors.

The Bengal Sultanate witnessed an influx of Persian scholars, lawyers, teachers and clerics. Thousands of Persian books and manuscripts were published in Bengal.

The period of the reign of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Azam Shah , is described as the "golden age of Persian literature in Bengal". Its stature was illustrated by the Sultan's own correspondence and collaboration with the Persian poet Hafez ; a poem which can be found in the Divan of Hafez today.

Dobhashi Bengali was patronised and given official status under the Sultans of Bengal ; whose first language was Persian, and was the most popular literary form used by Bengalis during the pre-colonial period, irrespective of their religion.

Beginning in , though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu also historically known as Hindustani , Punjabi and Sindhi.

In the 19th century, under the Qajar dynasty , the dialect that is spoken in Tehran rose to prominence. There was still substantial Arabic vocabulary, but many of these words have been integrated into Persian phonology and grammar.

In addition, under the Qajar rule numerous Russian , French , and English terms entered the Persian language, especially vocabulary related to technology.

The first official attentions to the necessity of protecting the Persian language against foreign words, and to the standardization of Persian orthography , were under the reign of Naser ed Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in The ultimate goal was to prevent books from being printed with wrong use of words.

According to the executive guarantee of this association, the government was responsible for wrongfully printed books.

The first academy for the Persian language was founded on 20 May , under the name Academy of Iran. It was established by the initiative of Reza Shah Pahlavi , and mainly by Hekmat e Shirazi and Mohammad Ali Foroughi , all prominent names in the nationalist movement of the time.

The academy was a key institution in the struggle to re-build Iran as a nation-state after the collapse of the Qajar dynasty. During the s and s, the academy led massive campaigns to replace the many Arabic , Russian , French , and Greek loanwords whose widespread use in Persian during the centuries preceding the foundation of the Pahlavi dynasty had created a literary language considerably different from the spoken Persian of the time.

This became the basis of what is now known as "Contemporary Standard Persian". All these three varieties are based on the classic Persian literature and its literary tradition.

There are also several local dialects from Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan which slightly differ from the standard Persian.

Persian-speaking peoples of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan can understand one another with a relatively high degree of mutual intelligibility.

The following are some languages closely related to Persian, or in some cases are considered dialects:. More distantly related branches of the Iranian language family include Kurdish and Balochi.

Historically, Persian distinguished length. Numerous other instances exist. According to most studies on the subject e.

However, there are studies e. There are also some studies that consider quality and quantity to be both active in the Iranian system such as Toosarvandani That offers a synthetic analysis including both quality and quantity, which often suggests that Modern Persian vowels are in a transition state between the quantitative system of Classical Persian and a hypothetical future Iranian language, which will eliminate all traces of quantity and retain quality as the only active feature.

The length distinction is still strictly observed by careful reciters of classic-style poetry for all varieties including Tajik. Suffixes predominate Persian morphology , though there are a small number of prefixes.

In other words, in Persian, pronouns are gender neutral. Normal declarative sentences are structured as S PP O V : sentences have optional subjects , prepositional phrases , and objects followed by a compulsory verb.

Persian makes extensive use of word building and combining affixes, stems, nouns and adjectives. Persian frequently uses derivational agglutination to form new words from nouns, adjectives, and verbal stems.

New words are extensively formed by compounding — two existing words combining into a new one. While having a lesser influence on Arabic [23] and other languages of Mesopotamia and its core vocabulary being of Middle Persian origin, [18] New Persian contains a considerable number of Arabic lexical items, [15] [22] [24] which were Persianized [25] and often took a different meaning and usage than the Arabic original.

Persian loanwords of Arabic origin especially include Islamic terms. The Arabic vocabulary in other Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages is generally understood to have been copied from New Persian, not from Arabic itself.

John R. Perry, in his article Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic , estimates that about 24 percent of an everyday vocabulary of 20, words in current Persian, and more than 25 percent of the vocabulary of classical and modern Persian literature, are of Arabic origin.

The text frequency of these loan words is generally lower and varies by style and topic area. It may approach 25 percent of a text in literature.

The inclusion of Mongolic and Turkic elements in the Persian language should also be mentioned, [] not only because of the political role a succession of Turkic dynasties played in Iranian history, but also because of the immense prestige Persian language and literature enjoyed in the wider non-Arab Islamic world, which was often ruled by sultans and emirs with a Turkic background.

The Turkish and Mongolian vocabulary in Persian is minor in comparison to that of Arabic and these words were mainly confined to military, pastoral terms and political sector titles, administration, etc.

Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially other Indo-European languages such as Armenian , [] Urdu, Bengali and to a lesser extent Hindi; the latter three through conquests of Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan invaders; [] Turkic languages such as Ottoman Turkish , Chagatai , Tatar , Turkish , [] Turkmen , Azeri , [] Uzbek , and Karachay-Balkar ; [] Caucasian languages such as Georgian , [] and to a lesser extent, Avar and Lezgin ; [] Afro-Asiatic languages like Assyrian List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Arabic , particularly Bahrani Arabic ; [21] [] and even Dravidian languages indirectly especially Telugu and Brahui ; as well as Austronesian languages such as Indonesian and Malay.

Persian has also had a significant lexical influence, via Turkish, on Albanian , Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , and Serbo-Croatian , particularly as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Use of occasional foreign synonyms instead of Persian words can be a common practice in everyday communications as an alternative expression. In some instances in addition to the Persian vocabulary, the equivalent synonyms from multiple foreign languages can be used.

The vast majority of modern Iranian Persian and Dari text is written with the Arabic script. Tajiki, which is considered by some linguists to be a Persian dialect influenced by Russian and the Turkic languages of Central Asia , [] [] is written with the Cyrillic script in Tajikistan see Tajik alphabet.

There also exist several romanization systems for Persian. Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written using the Persian alphabet which is a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet , which uses different pronunciation and additional letters not found in Arabic language.

After the Arab conquest of Persia , it took approximately years which is referred to as Two Centuries of Silence in Iran, before Persians adopted the Arabic script in place of the older alphabet.

The reader must determine the word from context. The Arabic system of vocalization marks known as harakat is also used in Persian, although some of the symbols have different pronunciations.

This system is not used in mainstream Persian literature; it is primarily used for teaching and in some but not all dictionaries. There are several letters generally only used in Arabic loanwords.

These letters are pronounced the same as similar Persian letters. The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet:.

The Persian alphabet also modifies some letters of the Arabic alphabet. The International Organization for Standardization has published a standard for simplified transliteration of Persian into Latin, ISO , titled "Information and documentation — Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters — Part 3: Persian language — Simplified transliteration" [] but the transliteration scheme is not in widespread use.

Another Latin alphabet, based on the Common Turkic Alphabet , was used in Tajikistan in the s and s. The alphabet was phased out in favor of Cyrillic in the late s.

It is most commonly used in chat , emails and SMS applications. The Cyrillic script was introduced for writing the Tajik language under the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in the late s, replacing the Latin alphabet that had been used since the October Revolution and the Persian script that had been used earlier.

After , materials published in Persian in the Persian script were banned from the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 28 August For other uses, see Farsi disambiguation. Western Iranian language.

Language family. Old Persian Middle Persian. Writing system. Academy of Persian Language and Literature Iran. Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian including dialects.

Countries where Persian is an official language. Main article: Old Persian. Main article: Middle Persian. See also: List of Persian poets and authors.

Main article: Persian language in South Asia. See also: Persian and Urdu and Dobhashi. Main article: Persian phonology. Main article: Persian grammar.

Main article: Persian vocabulary. Main article: Persian alphabet. Main article: Romanization of Persian. Main article: Tajik alphabet.

Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars. Multilingual Matters. Retrieved 7 November People Groups. Islam in Post-Soviet Russia.

Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 2 January There are numerous reasons to study Persian: for one thing, Persian is an important language of the Middle East and Central Asia, spoken by approximately 70 million native speakers and roughly million people worldwide.

Official documents, correspondence, and texts, as well as text-books, must be in this language and script. However, the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian.

Glottolog 3. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan. Psychology Press. There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Farsi — previously dominant in the educational and administrative system Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies.

All this affected translation activities in Persian, seriously undermining the international character of the language. The problem was compounded in modern times by several factors, among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union, with Uzbek and Russian languages, as well as the emergence of a language reform movement in Iran which paid no attention to the consequences of its pronouncements and actions for the language as a whole.

Central Asian Survey. Tajikistan in the new Central Asia. Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe. Consequently the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine.

Tajiks within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University SamGU academics and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30 per cent of the republic's twenty-two million population, rather than the official figure of 4.

In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period early Islamic times by the name of Dari or Farsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids.

Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc.

It had its origin in Fars the true Persian country from the historical point of view and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran.

Walter de Gruyter. The Pahlavi language also known as Middle Persian was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty from 3rd to 7th century A.

Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country. However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian Moshref Iranian languages and scripts".

In Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization. Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi, but Arabic lexical items predominated for more abstract or abstruse subjects and often replaced their Persian equivalents in polite discourse.

The grammar of New Persian is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Iranian languages and scripts 2 Documentation".

Retrieved 30 December Iran and Islam. In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky. Edinburgh University Press. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 1 June Encyclopedia of literary translation into English.

Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature.

Persian grammar. Cambridge University Press. The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized. Boston: Brill. Oxford University Press.

Comrie, Berard ed. The World's Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved 3 October IV I : 27— University of Pennsylvania Press. In Schiffman, Harold ed. Leiden: Brill. Compendium of the World's Languages 3rd ed.

Dodd, Mead. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. It is derived from the word for dar court, lit. Under the specific historical conditions that have been sketched above, the Dari Middle Persian of the 7th century was developed, within two centuries, to the Dari New Persian that is attested in the earliest specimens of NP poetry in the late 9th century.

Tajik Persian". Retrieved 13 July Excerpt 1: "Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages.

Excerpt 2: New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries. American Oriental Society, Old Persian.

AD — whose official language was Middle Persian. Hence, the entire country used to be called Perse by the ancient Greeks, a practice continued to this day.

The more general designation 'Iran -shahr " derives from Old Iranian aryanam Khshathra ' the realm of Aryans'. The dominance of these two dynasties resulted in Old and Middle-Persian colonies throughout the empire, most importantly for the course of the development of Persian, in the north-east i.

This led to certain degree of regionalisation". Horvath, Paul Vaughan, Community languages , , p.

The Persian Empire started as a collection of semi-nomadic tribes who raised sheep, goats and cattle on the Iranian plateau. Cyrus the Great—the leader of one such tribe—began to defeat nearby kingdoms, including Media, Lydia and Babylon , joining them under one rule.

Cyrus the Great is immortalized in the Cyrus Cylinder, a clay cylinder inscribed in BC with the story of how he conquered Babylon from King Nabonidus, bringing an end to the Neo-Babylonian empire.

He unified the empire through introducing standard currency and weights and measures; making Aramaic the official language and building roads.

The Behistun Inscription, a multilingual relief carved into Mount Behistun in Western Iran, extolls his virtues and was a critical key to deciphering cuneiform script.

Its impact is compared that of the Rosetta Stone , the tablet that enabled scholars to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Persians were the first people to establish regular routes of communication between three continents—Africa, Asia and Europe.

The ancient Persians of the Achaemenid Empire created art in many forms, including metalwork, rock carvings, weaving and architecture.

As the Persian Empire expanded to encompass other artistic centers of early civilization, a new style was formed with influences from these sources.

Early Persian art included large, carved rock reliefs cut into cliffs, such as those found at Naqsh-e Rustam, an ancient cemetery filled with the tombs of Achaemenid kings.

The elaborate rock murals depict equestrian scenes and battle victories. Ancient Persians were also known for their metalwork. In the s, smugglers discovered gold and silver artifacts among ruins near the Oxus River in present-day Tajikistan.

The artifacts included a small golden chariot, coins and bracelets decorated in a griffon motif. The griffon is a mythical creature with the wings and head of an eagle and the body of a lion, and a symbol of the Persian capital of Persepolis.

British diplomats and members of the military serving in Pakistan brought roughly of these gold and silver pieces—known as the Oxus Treasure—to London where they are now housed at the British Museum.

The history of carpet weaving in Persia dates back to the nomadic tribes. The ancient Greeks prized the artistry of these hand-woven rugs—famous for their elaborate design and bright colors.

Today, most Persian rugs are made of wool, silk, and cotton. Embossed bas relief carvings of servants bringing gifts to the king on the sidewall of stairs in front of Tachara Palace, also known as the Palace of Darius, in Persepolis.

The Achaemenian palaces of Persepolis were built upon massive terraces. They were decorated with ornamental facades that included the long rock relief carvings for which the ancient Persians were famous.

Many people think of Persia as synonymous with Islam , though Islam only became the dominant religion in the Persian Empire after the Arab conquests of the seventh century.

The first Persian Empire was shaped by a different religion: Zoroastrianism. Named after the Persian prophet Zoroaster also known as Zarathustra , Zoroastrianism is one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions.

Zoroaster, who likely lived sometime between and B. The Achaemenian kings were devout Zoroastrians. By most accounts, Cyrus the Great was a tolerant ruler who allowed his subjects to speak their own languages and practice their own religions.

Hebrew scriptures praise Cyrus the Great for freeing the Jewish people of Babylon from captivity and allowing them to return to Jerusalem.

This period of time is sometimes called the Pax Persica, or Persian Peace. The Achaemenid dynasty finally fell to the invading armies of Alexander the Great of Macedon in B.

Subsequent rulers sought to restore the Persian Empire to its Achaemenian boundaries, though the empire never quite regained the enormous size it had achieved under Cyrus the Great.

Psychology Press. There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Farsi — previously dominant in the educational and administrative system Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies.

All this affected translation activities in Persian, seriously undermining the international character of the language.

The problem was compounded in modern times by several factors, among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union, with Uzbek and Russian languages, as well as the emergence of a language reform movement in Iran which paid no attention to the consequences of its pronouncements and actions for the language as a whole.

Central Asian Survey. Tajikistan in the new Central Asia. Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe. Consequently the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine.

Tajiks within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University SamGU academics and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30 per cent of the republic's twenty-two million population, rather than the official figure of 4.

In Frye, R. The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period early Islamic times by the name of Dari or Farsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids.

Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc.

It had its origin in Fars the true Persian country from the historical point of view and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran.

Walter de Gruyter. The Pahlavi language also known as Middle Persian was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty from 3rd to 7th century A.

Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country. However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian Moshref Iranian languages and scripts".

In Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization. Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi, but Arabic lexical items predominated for more abstract or abstruse subjects and often replaced their Persian equivalents in polite discourse.

The grammar of New Persian is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Iranian languages and scripts 2 Documentation". Retrieved 30 December Iran and Islam.

In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky. Edinburgh University Press. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 1 June Encyclopedia of literary translation into English.

Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature.

Persian grammar. Cambridge University Press. The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized.

Boston: Brill. Oxford University Press. Comrie, Berard ed. The World's Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved 3 October IV I : 27— University of Pennsylvania Press. In Schiffman, Harold ed. Leiden: Brill. Compendium of the World's Languages 3rd ed.

Dodd, Mead. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. It is derived from the word for dar court, lit. Under the specific historical conditions that have been sketched above, the Dari Middle Persian of the 7th century was developed, within two centuries, to the Dari New Persian that is attested in the earliest specimens of NP poetry in the late 9th century.

Tajik Persian". Retrieved 13 July Excerpt 1: "Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages.

Excerpt 2: New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries. American Oriental Society, Old Persian.

AD — whose official language was Middle Persian. Hence, the entire country used to be called Perse by the ancient Greeks, a practice continued to this day.

The more general designation 'Iran -shahr " derives from Old Iranian aryanam Khshathra ' the realm of Aryans'.

The dominance of these two dynasties resulted in Old and Middle-Persian colonies throughout the empire, most importantly for the course of the development of Persian, in the north-east i.

This led to certain degree of regionalisation". Horvath, Paul Vaughan, Community languages , , p. Paul , "The Language of the Shahnameh in historical and dialectical perspective", p.

Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. New Persian". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Turkic-Iranian contact areas: historical and linguistic aspects. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Early Persian poetry, from the beginnings down to the time of Firdausi. New York: The Macmillan Company. Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan 4th Revised ed.

During this period, Persian was adopted as the lingua franca of the eastern Islamic nations. Extensive contact with Arabic led to a large influx of Arab vocabulary.

In fact, a writer of Classical Persian had at one's disposal the entire Arabic lexicon and could use Arab terms freely either for literary effect or to display erudition.

Classical Persian remained essentially unchanged until the nineteenth century, when the dialect of Teheran rose in prominence, having been chosen as the capital of Persia by the Qajar Dynasty in Although it still contains a large number of Arab terms, most borrowings have been nativized, with a much lower percentage of Arabic words in colloquial forms of the language.

History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing.

Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd. Oneworld Publications. Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh Online ed. Retrieved 1 September The Daily Star Bangladesh.

Retrieved 14 July University of California Press. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 13 January The New Cambridge History of India.

The continuance of Persian as the language of administration. We see such acquaintance clearly within the Sikh court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, for example, the principal language of which was Persian.

Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. Brown University.

Archived PDF from the original on 25 October Retrieved 30 March Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Houtsma et al. Brill and London: Luzac, — London: RoutledgeCurzon.

An Introduction to Persian 3rd Rev ed. Ibex Publishers. London: Routledge. The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics. This process was all the more remarkable since, in spite of their almost uninterrupted political domination for nearly 1, years, the cultural influence of these rough nomads on Iran's refined civilization remained extremely tenuous.

This is demonstrated by the mediocre linguistic contribution, for which exhaustive statistical studies have been made Doerfer. The number of Turkish or Mongol words that entered Persian, though not negligible, remained limited to 2,, i.

These new words are confined on the one hand to the military and political sector titles, administration, etc. The contrast with Arab influence is striking.

While cultural pressure of the Arabs on Iran had been intense, they in no way infringed upon the entire Iranian territory, whereas with the Turks, whose contributions to Iranian civilization were modest, vast regions of Iranian lands were assimilated, notwithstanding the fact that resistance by the latter was ultimately victorious.

Several reasons may be offered. Iranian influences in Armenian Language". March Retrieved 23 April Campbell and Gareth King Compendium of the World Languages.

Retrieved 23 May Archived from the original on 23 July A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar. Early New Persian". Iranica Online.

Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 13 December Persian at Wikipedia's sister projects.

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TRUTH or MYTH: Persians React to Stereotypes In the Islamic Period". Retrieved 10 June Compendium of the World's Languages 3rd ed. Iran: What Everyone Needs to Know. Campbell and Gareth King The term Persian might also be used to refer to a speaker Bader Persian. The Arts of Persia. Retrieved 30 Diamond Verification The Achaemenid dynasty finally fell to the invading armies of Alexander the Great of Macedon in B.

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Was ist die Aussprache von Persian? Die Entwicklung des Persischen und der iranischen Sprachen überhaupt wird in drei Perioden gegliedert:. Klare Erklärungen von natürlichem geschriebenem und gesprochenem Englisch. Im Alltag hat sich eine deutlich abweichende und in seiner Anwendung je nach Situation abgestufte Umgangssprache entwickelt. Tools to create your own word lists and quizzes. De facto wird jedoch in Afghanistan nur in sehr wenigen Persian wie beispielsweise der Verlesung der Nachrichten konsequent in diesem Dialekt gesprochen. Saam Schlamminger ist ein Mensch persischen Ursprungs. Free word lists and quizzes from Cambridge. Sunmaker Pratteln diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen noch folgende wichtige Informationen: Phonetik und Phonologie.

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De facto wird jedoch in Afghanistan nur in sehr wenigen Zusammenhängen wie beispielsweise der Verlesung Persian Nachrichten konsequent in diesem Dialekt gesprochen. Klicken Sie auf die Pfeile, um die Übersetzungsrichtung zu ändern. Beispiele für Mauonline Übersetzung Persian ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Sie besitzt neben parthischen und mittelpersischen Anteilen siehe oben auch solche aus anderen Kredit Kad Sprachen. Die georgische Übersetzung des Persian Liebesepos Wis und Ramin gilt Runterladen Spiele ein Höhepunkt der mittelalterlichen georgischen Literatur. Ferner weicht mitunter die Wortstellung von der der Schriftsprache ab. Für viele dieser Wörter gibt es persische Entsprechungen, die aber zum Teil einer Wm Finale 2017 Spiel Stilebene zuzuordnen Lucky Red Casino Verification Form oder schlicht seltener verwendet werden. Beginner's Persian (Iranian Farsi) with Online Audio (Hippocrene Beginner's) | Khorrami, Mohammad Mehdi | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für​. Übersetzung im Kontext von „persian“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: persian gulf, persian empire, old persian, persian rugs, persian carpets. Farsi (Persian) for Beginners is a complete language course by experienced teacher Dr. Saeid Atoofi which can help you to speak the language and understand. Die persische Sprache (persisch زبان فارسی, DMG zabān-e fārsī) ist eine plurizentrische A SHORT SKETCH OF THE GRAMMAR OF PERSIAN // The "​International Journal of American Linguistics," VOLUME 30, NUMBER 1, JANUARY. Persian Kitten. Trocken, Katze. Alleinfuttermittel für Katzen - Speziell für Perser-​Katzenwelpen (bis zum Monat). Verfügbar in. 2 kg. 4 kg. 10 kg. Online kaufen​. Persian Diese Stämme bilden die Grundlage für alle Zeitformen. Es verlor nach der Eroberung Persiens durch die Araber 7. Folgen Sie uns. Dieser ist abgeleitet von dem persischen Wort nargile. Das Reanne Evans des Tages donate. Zwei bekannte Dichter Persiens Hut Test Negativ Saadi und Hafis. Beispiele, die altpersischen enthalten, ansehen 15 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Ein Standardwerk der neupersischen Sprache ist Dehchodas Persian. Der Satz enthält beleidigende Inhalte. Sie sehen aus wie persische Jugendliche. In allgemeinen Wörterbüchern des Deutschen konnten Wörter persischen Ursprungs Iranismen nachgewiesen Persian. Beispiele, die Perserteppich Slot Machine Monkey, ansehen 23 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. He served in the persian gulf. Brauchen Sie einen Übersetzer? Linguistische Klassifikation. Abgesehen von seiner religiösen Verwendung starb es aber schon Jahrhunderte vor dem Aufkommen des Islams aus; wahrscheinlich löste sich die Sprache im verwandten Baktrisch auf. Ein Standardwerk der neupersischen Sprache ist Dehchodas Lexikon. Da Bestimmungsworte beziehungsweise -partikel existieren, die Satzglieder Persian, ist die Satzstruktur What Is The Meaning Of Volatility der persischen Sprache allerdings nicht sehr strikt Persian wird Halle In Deutschland Dialekten und in Mega Chemnitz Lyrik häufig verändert. The film highlights the pros and cons of progress in restrained and nonetheless Spielen Bus images. Für 68 dieser Entlehnungen kann angegeben werden, wann sie ins Deutsche übernommen wurden. Das in hebräischer Schrift geschriebene Persisch-Jüdisch ist als frühestes Zeugnis der neupersischen Sprache von besonderer Bedeutung. Diese Stämme bilden die Grundlage für alle Zeitformen. Jahrhundert das Hindustanischedas persische Begriffe ans Englische Bsp. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

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