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Nakamoto believes that it's better to verify transactions rather than trust an external third party, especially when it comes to something as important as money.
The irreversibility of transactions provides confidence that the payment system as a whole is robust. Secondly, irreversibility minimizes fraud, he argues.
Decentralized computers would prove the exact order of these irreversible transactions, creating user confidence that the records in the electronic audit trail, the blockchain, are valid and accurate.
In this section, Nakamoto's description of the electronic transaction process, namely the blockchain, gets technical. Owners digitally sign a hash of the previous transaction and add a public key of the next owner to the end of the coin.
A recipient of the coin, a payee, can verify the signatures in order to verify the chain of ownership. A Bitcoin doesn't exist anywhere per se, at least not in the traditional sense of physical cash.
Rather, Nakamoto's concept of an electronic "coin" is a chronological series of verified digital signatures. To illustrate, think of Nakamoto's virtual coin as a UPS or FedEx package that you sign at your doorstep before sending it to a forwarding address.
But the difference is that a publicly-available ledger is placed right on the packing slip which shows the entire history of all prior deliveries of the same package.
The information includes all originating addresses as well as timestamps detailing where and when exactly each delivery took place.
For example, John owns only one Bitcoin but sends one coin each to two different merchants -- amounting to two Bitcoins paid with only one originating coin.
Secondly, all participants of the payment system must adhere to the same timeline so that everyone agrees to a single history of the order in which transactions are received.
A timeline and public history of all transactions prevent double-spending because later transactions would be considered an invalid, or perhaps fraudulent, payment from the same coin.
Each coin has a unique timestamp and the earlier transaction would be accepted as the legitimate payment. One coin, one payment. Sending the same coin to a second merchant, per the above example, would show a different timestamp that occurred later in the timeline.
A timestamp server takes a hash of a block of items and publicly announces the hash. The timestamp proves the existence of the data at the time.
Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash. And each additional timestamp reinforces the ones before it. This sequence forms a chain.
Here we see the emerging structure of the blockchain. The timestamps are key to preventing double-spending and fraud. It'd be virtually impossible to send duplicate coins because each coin contains different, chronologically-ordered timestamps.
Each delivery would contain a unique timestamp on the packing slip, and that would mark the exact time of each and every delivery on the public ledger.
Bitcoin's file size in bytes increases as the transaction history gets larger. And larger files lead to longer processing times.
Transaction processing -- or mining -- continually require more CPU power to verify the transactions because the digital records themselves grow in size.
Nakamoto says that proof-of-work is used to implement a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp network mentioned above. The process scans for a value that when hashed, results in a certain numerical expression.
The timestamp network must reconcile this value with a block's hash. CPU power is needed to satisfy the proof-of-work, and the block cannot be changed without redoing the work.
Later blocks are chained after it, and to change the block would require redoing all the blocks after it.
The language may be technical but the concept is simple. Proof-of-work is what safeguards the blockchain. Nakamoto says that a hash created by a timestamp server is assigned a unique number that is then used to identify the hash in the blockchain.
Inherent in this unique number is a math puzzle that a computer must solve before a transaction can happen.
Once a correct answer is given, it serves as proof that the specified work has been done. When someone sends an electronic coin, they must take a hash's unique number and solve an inherent math puzzle.
The answer is then passed to the recipient to check if the solution is correct -- an important validation step.
If not, the proposed transaction is rejected. Otherwise an attacker may allocate several IPs in an attempt to hack the network.
Secondly, the longest chain of blocks serves as proof that the CPUs invested the greater amount of work in that longer chain. This process secures the blockchain by requiring would-be-attackers to redo the work of the block and all blocks after it i.
Nakamoto says that it'd be an extremely difficult task for an attacker to do just that, and that the probability of success diminishes exponentially the more blocks are added to a chain.
So how does proof-of-work protect the blockchain? In layman's terms, honest CPUs in the network solve each hash's math problem. As these computational puzzles are solved, these blocks are bundled into a chronologically-ordered chain.
Thus the term blockchain. This validates to the entire system that all the required "math homework" has been completed. An attacker would have to redo all the completed puzzles and then surpass the work of honest CPUs in order to create a longer chain -- a feat that would be extremely unlikely if not impossible.
This sequence makes Bitcoin transactions irreversible. Nakamoto points out that honest nodes in the network need to collectively possess more CPU power than an attacker.
As mentioned in earlier sections, nodes always consider the longest chain to be the correct one and will work on extending it.
This section shows why it's important to announce transactions to all nodes. It forms the basis for verifying the validity of each transaction as well as each block in the blockchain.
As mentioned earlier, each node solves a proof-of-work puzzle and thus always recognizes the longest chain to be the correct version.
As time progresses, the blockchain's record grows and provides assurance to the entire network of its validity. The first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block.
This achieves two things. Second, it's a way to initially distribute new coins into circulation since there is no central authority to issue them.
The new coin rewards nodes -- aka Bitcoin miners -- for expending their time, CPU and electricity to make the network possible.
They can also be rewarded with transaction fees. Nakamoto envisions a limited number of coins to ever enter circulation, at which point miners can be incentivized solely by transaction fees that are inflation-free.
New coins also incentivize nodes to play by the rules and remain honest. An attacker would have to expend a ton of resources to threaten the system, and getting rewarded by coins and transaction fees serve as a deterrent to such fraud.
Mining gold requires labor, water and equipment and it's an activity similar to Bitcoin mining. Since a maximum of 21 million Bitcoins will ever be mined, the system can be free of inflation.
Therefore, Bitcoin can serve as a sustainable store of value, similar to gold. Compare that to fiat currency, such as the U. Due to inflation, the dollar has devalued nearly 97 percent since Bitcoin's incentive program is a mechanism that protects the peer-to-peer electronic payment system.
They cannot be changed, tampered with or reversed. Each block is made up of data that is based on encrypted Merkle Trees which are used to detect any fraudulent transactions or corrupted files and expel them.
This way, the blockchain ensures that all Bitcoin transactions are accurate and prevents any corrupt files from damaging the ledger. The Bitcoin blockchain is a shared record of every transaction ever made on its digital accounting book.
When person A sends Bitcoin to person B, this transaction is added to a public ledger. This ledger is stored in multiplicity throughout the network, and to update one is to update them all.
This public ledger contains the history of all past transactions. Meanwhile, Bitcoin miners confirm transactions to the rest of the network by including them in blocks.
Bitcoin nodes, on the other hand, which run Bitcoin software client and contain the entire copy of the blockchain, validate transactions based on the protocol.
Since Bitcoin is digital, it would be fairly easy to spend the same bitcoin twice right? Bitcoin users protect themselves from double spending fraud by waiting for confirmations when receiving payments on the blockchain, the transactions become more irreversible as the number of confirmations rises.
Other electronic systems e. PayPal prevent double-spending by having a master authoritative source that follows business rules for authorizing each transaction.
As previously mentioned, Bitcoin uses a decentralized system, where a consensus among network nodes following the same protocol and Proof-of-Work is substituted for a central authority.
This means that Bitcoin has special properties not shared by centralized systems. For example, if you keep the private key of a bitcoin secret and the transaction has enough confirmations, then nobody can take the bitcoin from.
Possession of bitcoin is not enforced by business rules and policy, but by cryptography and game theory. Because bitcoin transactions can be final, merchants do not need to hassle customers for extra information like billing address, name, etc.
This means that Bitcoin can be used without registering a real name or excluding users based on age, nationality or residency.
This anonymity has lead many naysayers to accuse bitcoin of being the payment method of choice of criminals, as it is impossible to trace the origins of the payment and there is no limit to the amount that can be sent, unlike a bank account which requires a justification of funds.
However, these accusations stand on thin ground based on the fact that all transactions are public on the blockchain and tracing people back through their Bitcoin address has been proven possible by federal agents.
Bitcoin mining is the process of spending computational power to secure Bitcoin transactions against reversal and introducing new bitcoins to the system.
Bitcoin mining can be done by anyone possessing enough computing power to solve mathematical problems required by the system to confirm transactions while preventing double-spending.
For their efforts, these miners are given a fee in the form of newly minted bitcoins. A reward of The number of bitcoins generated per block will decrease over time until a total of 21 million is reached.
The next reward halving is expected to take place in May Mining is intentionally resource-intensive to set up and to maintain. In this way, a type of self-governance is built into the system that automates some of the governing aspects or traditional monetary systems.
Today, bitcoin mining is largely centralized in behemoth mining farms in countries with cheap power and production costs, using highly specialized equipment and mining rigs.
This excludes the bedroom bitcoin miners and enthusiasts from taking part. However, miners are only rewarded for properly validating transactions and playing a role that fuels the whole system.
This incentivizes the ongoing maintenance, accuracy, and growth of the blockchain. The creator of Bitcoin is still unknown, although it was first introduced in a whitepaper in by Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym that may represent a person or a group of people.
If you want to read more about the basics of Bitcoin and its original, we suggest that you go ahead and check out the original Bitcoin whitepaper.
Bitcoin was designed to eventually become a deflationary currency to combat the way in which governments use inflation to redistribute wealth and rob people of their life savings.
Indeed, in countries with hyperinflation in which their national currency becomes wildly devalued form one day to the next such as Venezuela and Zimbabwe, many people are adopting Bitcoin as a means of shielding their wealth.
In it was a clear vision of things to come:. Later in , Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta proposed a secure blockchain for storing documents using Merkle Trees.
First, Bitcoin is a technology just like alternating current or the internet. Like any new technology, it is not yet well-understood by the old guard and general public who are used to government fiat money.
However, Bitcoin has several properties that make it the securest form of money to date. As mentioned, its supply is capped at 21 million bitcoin and every participant in the Bitcoin network tacitly agrees to this rule.
This not only makes the monetary policy predictable but also introduces the novel concept of digital scarcity. Scarcity is an important property for any store of value.
But unlike the historic store of value, gold, Bitcoin makes it possible to not only easily store, but also transport value and transact with anyone in the world without a trusted third-party.
You may be wondering if Bitcoin only exists in digital form, what the need for storage is. However, where you keep your bitcoin is important as, while the technology has proven to be extremely secure, secondary software, such as bitcoin wallets and exchanges are vulnerable to hacking attacks.
There are various ways to store your bitcoin and useful terms that you need to know about before deciding the best method of storage for you:.
Exchange platforms: On an exchange platform, you can buy and sell Bitcoin for fiat currency or for another cryptocurrency such as Ethereum or Litecoin.
Many of these exchanges offer storage and Bitcoin wallet services, however, these have not proven to be percent safe. They also often charge high transaction fees to use the platform.
Bitcoin wallet platform: You can think of this as a bank account where your bitcoins are stored, again these have not been without issues.
Hard wallet: This is an offline wallet that is not connected to a network, making it far more hacker-resistant. Just like when people send money to your bank account number, you use your public cryptographic key to give people when you want to receive bitcoins.
Private Cryptographic Key: This key is for you only and should never be given out to anyone else. This will allow you to access your bitcoins that are sent to your public cryptographic key or address.
A giant total of , bitcoins disappeared from the platform, wiping out the business pretty much overnight and leaving many bitcoin users out of pocket.
Remember, Bitcoin itself is extremely secure. But exchanges and digital wallet providers are often vulnerable. When you buy and sell Bitcoin online, you must be extremely careful, and this makes hard wallets, without doubt, the safest alternative.
Bitcoin hard wallets are essentially like a flash drive that allows you to store your cryptographic keys offline and well away from exchanges.
What you are storing is your private key that allows you to access your funds when you connect online. The downside with hard wallets? Just like a regular wallet, if it gets lost or stolen, you can run into headaches, although providers like Trezor and Ledger give you a chance to recuperate your keys by making you write a backup phrase and pin number and keep it in a safe place when you configure your hard wallet in the beginning.
There is no complete answer to the question of whether bitcoin is legal since the answer depends on various factors, most notably, what part of the world you are in.
Most governments around the world have sat on the sidelines and neither declared Bitcoin legal or illegal, however that has also caused a shadow of uncertainty and doubt.
To be sure, Bitcoin does not have the backing of any regulatory agency, government, or central authority since it is a decentralized currency.
This in itself makes it hard to be regulated by authorities whose powers change in each jurisdiction. Countries like Malta, Singapore, and Gibraltar are either incorporating new laws to provide a framework for Bitcoin and blockchain companies or adapting existing laws.
Even the United States is beginning to warm to Bitcoin and reportedly both the US government and the Chinese government have invested in Bitcoin.
Governments have yet to decide how to regulate Bitcoin as it poses a direct threat to the government-central bank monopoly on money creation. Therefore, it is no surprise that there are clampdowns on fiat-bitcoin onramps, KYC regulations, and other barriers being imposed, all under the guise of anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism.
There are other obvious benefits. There is an entire list of bitcoin exchanges. Most of them require you to identify yourself, in order to comply with various United States banking laws.
To buy bitcoin, you make an account at an exchange and purchase the bitcoin using a bank transfer or a debit card. Currently, the easiest way to do this is with Coinbase or the CashApp.
Coinbase is an exchange that generally moves your money quickly, and can be used on a computer or a phone. CashApp is only available on a phone.
Both require you to confirm your identity before purchasing bitcoin. Either one is reliable and secure. Note: Gemini is my personal favorite exchange, so I want to give them a shoutout as well.
You can keep your bitcoin in the exchange where you bought it, but this largely defeats the purpose, as in a collapse situation, that account could be locked just the same as your bank account could be locked.
Please also note that you cannot send bitcoin as a donation to this website from any exchange, because our addresses are blocked.
What you want to do is have total control over your bitcoin, where you have your own passcode to access it and can access it from anywhere if need be.
Using that code, you will always be able to open the wallet from anywhere. You do not type that in every time you access it, but instead use a simpler password, which you will be prompted to enter.
However, that password can only be used to access the account from that wallet on that device. The only way to recover the money if you lose the device is with the seed code.
Note: You do not ever have to worry about losing the money in the wallet as long as you have the 12 word code. You can always open it back up and have full access to your money using that code, even if you lose your computer.
Copy one of these addresses to your Coinbase account, and send. Every transaction you make from the wallet, both in and out, is stored there in a list.
With the bitcoin in your wallet on your computer, you can move small amounts to a wallet on your phone, in an app called Mycelium , which you can then use to make transactions.
Bitcoin can already be used to purchase virtually everything online, including Steam credits, Amazon credits, App Store and Play Store credits, web services and most products that you would want shipped to your house.
After you install the app, you will use the address given to you by the app to send the bitcoin from your exchange to your personal wallet.
Then, when you install the phone app, you can send it from your desktop app to your phone app with a new address that has been generated on the phone.
You can also simply use a phone wallet as your main wallet, if you prefer, though if you have access to a computer, it will be easier as a beginner to understand the desktop app.
If you manage to do all of those things, then you know everything you need to know about bitcoin. If you encrypt your wallet on your device, there is very little chance that even if someone steals your device they will be able to access your wallet.
If they do manage, it will take them a long time, and you can simply open your wallet on a new device and transfer the money out.
If you memorize the code, someone would have to force you to tell them the code in order to get access. With the wallet on your phone, and bitcoin loaded into it, you can then go make a practice purchase.
The website Bitrefill has an entire list of gift cards you can charge using bitcoin. Other countries have a lot as well.
This is a flat fee, not a percentage fee, so if you buy a larger amount, the exchange rate is much lower. Scan the QR code, and it will load the amount and the address to send it to into your app, and you simply click send.
It will take as little as 1 minute and as many as 10 minutes to confirm the transaction, then you will be given a code to enter on Steam. Here is the page on their site on how to do it.
A receipt is printed that gives you a code to redeem your coins and transfer them to your wallet. These machines operate differently, but for the most part, they do not ask for an ID.
The LN is currently live and rapidly gaining traction. As a result, the on-chain transaction layer of Bitcoin may function as a low fee and efficient medium for high-value transfers with unparalleled finality compared to legacy payment rails.
Lightning Labs is one of the leading innovators in LN technology along with several other companies and following their updates and blog is an excellent way of staying up to date on LN developments.
Governance has emerged as one of the most intriguing concepts within cryptocurrencies, notably Bitcoin. As a decentralized network, governance is a challenging proposition and one which presents an unprecedented task.
Bitcoin has historically taken a conservative approach to change with lead developers and the broader community showing a commitment to reliability and security first.
Within this model are 3 primary groups:. The core Bitcoin developers exercise substantial control over the protocol and the future direction of the network.
They are the primary keepers of the core protocol code, and many of them have been working on Bitcoin for years. Decisions on logistical dynamics such as the timing of upgrades to the core protocol are mainly in control of the core developers.
Such authority has also come with criticisms, however. Many developers and users view the power of the core developers as too influential.
The incentives for core developers in governance is to maintain a healthy and secure Bitcoin network. Many of them likely have a substantial stake in the protocol, and the position is a preeminent role in the larger cryptocurrency developer community.
Most importantly, Bitcoin core devs show a penchant for parallel ideological values to the most vocal Bitcoin proponents focusing on privacy, security, and censorship-resistance.
Bitcoin developers have also pushed for reduced occurrences of hard forks, which should be minimized due to their tendency to increase the social attack surface of blockchains.
Community developers i. Open-source projects are powerful, and the capabilities of a driven community of contributors are unbounded. Pierre Rochard provides an excellent analysis of the technical components of how improvements are researched, proposed, implemented, deployed, and enforced in Bitcoin.
Many users of Bitcoin are intrigued by the concept of the underlying technology and place a strong emphasis on privacy. Other users are in it just for price speculation or for a store of value rivaling gold.
Whatever the reason for entering the Bitcoin space, it has really never been better for the user than it is now.
For users seeking a reprieve from inflationary government-issued currencies, Bitcoin is a viable alternative as a store of value and medium of exchange, despite its scalability and volatility shortcomings.
The majority of the core Bitcoin community, however, is likely participating for ideological reasons or pure curiosity, particularly privacy and the notion of a decentralized value system outside of government and other coercive means of control.
Users as part of the governance model play the important role of both running nodes in the network some of them and acting as the gauge for the direction of the design space which Bitcoin applications build within, on top of the protocol layer.
The proliferation of applications, businesses, and payment structures should continue at an accelerated pace. Centralized payment processors — like BitPay — have fallen out of favor with many users while other options — like BTCPay server — are rising.
Moreover, desires for further privacy enhancements, preferences for more non-custodial wallet options, better fiat-to-crypto on-ramp options, decentralized exchanges, and improved liquidity have led to the accrual of applications and services that were distant dreams only a few years ago.
Users do not have a significant direct effect on protocol upgrades or cryptographic enhancements. However, they indirectly affect such decisions by influencing the business entities and merchants that play a significant role in the broader sentiment of the direction of the network.
The primary goals of miners are to secure the network and make a profit. Balancing coordination and incentives is challenging for miners, but it has remained remarkably sustainable so far.
Fred Ehrsam provides some in-depth analysis on the aligning of incentives within the Bitcoin ecosystem. Buck Perley compares miners to the judicial system within a federated governance model where miners decide whether or not to adopt new protocol upgrades.
Miners can refuse to adhere to new protocol upgrades proposed by developers and remain on the chain that does not implement them. Conversely, their adoption of protocol enhancements — through running the new node software — signals consensus among the miners and developers on new features.
Image Credit — Buck Perley. However, some incentives are misaligned such as miners wanting to increase future transaction fees to increase profit while users wish to lower fees.
Bitcoin has remained reliable for a decade because of its ability to balance incentives and reduce the effect of asymmetries.
The mining industry is still young, however. Whether or not more competition will emerge or the market will trend towards centralization is yet to be seen.
Bitcoin is a deflationary medium of value exchange that is viewed through several different lenses.
The current block reward is The issuance of bitcoins through a PoW mining mechanism solves one of the most fundamental problems of issuing new currencies.
Mining relies on an open and competitive market of miners to mint the coin rather than printing the money out of thin air, which leads to inflation.
Fostering adoption of a new currency is difficult, but when you create a competitive market for its issuance, then participants are incentivized to participate in the issuance process and the price approaches equilibrium much more naturally than centralized control models.
This is in contrast to the Keynesian economics and fractional-reserve banking system of most modern economies. Bitcoin has inherent disadvantages when compared to fiat currencies, such as monetary sovereignty and tailoring monetary policy to the needs of the economy due to lack of control over it.
However, the notion that Bitcoin is supposed to replace fiat currencies entirely is overly ambitious and does not take into account specific nuances of local currencies that have multiple benefits.
Bitcoin is more of an evolved Internet money designed to circumvent many of the endemic problems that plague traditional finance and lead to corruption, coercion, and unsustainable monetary policy.
As recently articulated by Hasu — an independent Bitcoin researcher:. Bitcoin has remained remarkably robust throughout its lifetime, but the coming years should shed more light on how effective its economical design is as it continues to evolve and garner more widespread adoption.
Tribalism over perceptions of what the cryptocurrency should be have shaped many of the narratives throughout its history, but several factions today simply view Bitcoin through different prisms, depending on their level of interaction with the legacy cryptocurrency.
The two primary schools of thought on Bitcoin are:. Finality in settlements of transactions is much quicker than traditional mediums, and the low fees make the process extremely efficient.
Moreover, proponents of this ideology view the LN as the necessary scaling solution for using Bitcoin as P2P payments network instead of on-chain scaling.
Integrating more nuanced technical enhancements such as Schnorr signatures for aggregated multisigs and SegWit for effective scaling are also the position of this camp.
Conversely, supporters of Bitcoin as P2P digital cash via on-chain scaling are primarily the Bitcoin Cash community.
However, scaling on-chain comes with many trade-offs that are hard to rationalize in the long-term. Bitcoin Cash has fallen behind Bitcoin largely for this reason.
The current sentiment of Bitcoin as a high-value settlement layer and long-term store of value is the dominant view in the broader community.
Polarizing topics and tribalism are prevalent in the community, however. Despite this, the larger goal for Bitcoin — no matter what narrative you believe — is a binding ideology that many share.
When you strip down the arguments over technical implementations, soft forks, hard forks, and other issues, the values that many core community members share are the same.
Primarily, these values are privacy, censorship-resistance, and the belief in sound money free from coercive control.
Social scalability is about the ways and extents to which participants can think about and respond to institutions and fellow participants as the variety and numbers of participants in those institutions or relationships grow.
Such a system removes the inherent need of people to implicitly trust third parties, which he also defines as security holes.
Bitcoin has the strongest and most established network effects out of any cryptocurrency community. There are nearly 1 million subscribers on the main Bitcoin subreddit , and a University of Cambridge study placed the number of active cryptocurrency users worldwide between 2.
Topics are often polarizing within the Bitcoin community, and while it is often driven by a passion for the underlying movement, it has become toxic in many instances as well.
The ongoing feud between the recent Bitcoin Cash hard fork camps — particularly between Roger Ver and Craig Wright — is a recent high-profile example of this toxicity.
The Bitcoin community also receives criticism from outside its borders, mainly with mainstream media, gold bugs, certain economists i.
Mainstream media coverage of Bitcoin, and cryptocurrencies in general, is worse than subpar and tends to only focus on price movements.
The global regulatory landscape of cryptocurrencies is diverse and still forming. In the U. The SEC has made several comments on cryptocurrencies — particularly ICOs — and their intention to pursue fraudulent or illegal securities.
Recently, a landmark case with Airfox and Paragon signaled the potential retroactive evaluation of ICOs. Concerns over ICOs do not involve Bitcoin, however.
The SEC has actually made several comments saying that Bitcoin is not a security. Further, several rulings have confirmed with the CFTC that Bitcoin is considered — at least at the federal level — a commodity.
Bitcoin ETFs are pending approval by the SEC, and a sizeable portion of media focus has been placed on this development.
Bakkt — an upcoming Bitcoin futures contracts platform — recently delayed its launch until January , but the popular opinion is that the platform will attract broad interest from institutional finance with Bitcoin.
Considering the amount of technological innovation that has come with Bitcoin, it would be inferior judgment by the U.
Many developments in Bitcoin are fostering greater adoption through more friendly user-interfaces, better wallet applications, metrics, and exchange functionality.
However, it is becoming more clear that the regulatory environment will likely let Bitcoin proliferate in the U. The emphasis on privacy, security, and autonomy from governments will inevitably persist with the core community and are how many of the more novel technologies and solutions come about in Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is under constant development and adaptation. The future roadmap has some intriguing and sophisticated concepts that should prove vital to the sustainability of the network and its narrative direction.
Following the BIP system is the best way to stay on top of looming upgrades and technical proposals, but it is time-consuming and developer-oriented.
Other methods for staying in the loop include following prominent Bitcoin figures on social media, using the Bitcoin subreddits, and digesting content from cryptocurrency news sites like Coindesk.
Schnorr signatures are also a significant implementation pegged for integration into the protocol in Schnorr signatures are considered the best cryptographic signature available and have been a primary target of the core developers to add to the protocol for several years.
The growth of atomic swaps and submarine swaps are also crucial as they can allow for cross-chain including LN functionality between Bitcoin and other blockchains.
There are myriad of developments happening within the Bitcoin community, and it is always best to do your own research. Resources on learning more about Bitcoin are seemingly endless at this point, but here is a list of various types of resources that contain all levels of information.
From humble origins and an anonymous founder, Bitcoin has emerged as one of the most innovative technologies in modern times.
Bringing with it an entire industry, Bitcoin has spawned a movement towards sound money, enhanced privacy, and censorship-resistance from coercive authorities.
Blockchain writer, web developer, and content creator. An avid supporter of the decentralized Internet and the future development of cryptocurrency platforms.
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