Wann Lebte Albert Einstein Einstein – Der größte Physiker des 20. Jahrhunderts?
Albert Einstein arbeitet vor amerikanischen Wissenschaftlern an einem mathematischen Problem an der Tafel. Einstein wurde am. Albert Einstein war ein deutscher Physiker mit Schweizer und US-amerikanischer Staatsbürgerschaft. Er gilt als einer der bedeutendsten theoretischen Physiker der Wissenschaftsgeschichte und weltweit als bekanntester Wissenschaftler der Neuzeit. Hermann Einstein übersiedelte mit seinen Brüdern nach Ulm. Dort heiratete er Pauline Koch und lebte in der Bahnhofstraße B, wo Albert. Ende starb Einsteins Vater in Mailand. Am 6. Januar heiratete er, gegen den Willen der Familien, Mileva Maric, und im Mai wurde Einsteins erster. Koch, in Ulm geboren. Einsteins Geburtshaus in Ulm. , Im Juni siedelt die Familie nach München über, wo Hermann Einstein mit seinem Bruder Jakob die.
Albert Einstein war ein deutscher Physiker mit Schweizer und US-amerikanischer Staatsbürgerschaft. Er gilt als einer der bedeutendsten theoretischen Physiker der Wissenschaftsgeschichte und weltweit als bekanntester Wissenschaftler der Neuzeit. Albert Einstein gilt als eines der größten Genies und Denker aller Zeiten. Er wäre heute Jahre alt geworden. Grafik vergrößern. "Wichtig ist. Einstein wurde am März in Ulm geboren und starb am April in Princeton, New Jersey. Foto: dpa. Kurzbiographie: Das Leben.
März in Ulm, Deutschland geboren und starb am April in Princeton, USA. Wie geht es heute, am Seine Familie war wegen wirtschaftlicher Probleme nach Italien.
Am Juli explodierte in der Wüste von Nevada die erste Atombombe — ein Test. Drei Wochen später traf es Hiroshima und. Das Galaxy S20 ist seit knapp einem halben Jahr.
Mit "Denken neu denken" will er die Menschen zukunftsfähiger und die Welt gerechter machen. Albert Einstein war ein Physiker, einer der bedeutendsten aller Zeiten.
Seine Forschungen und Ideen haben die Wissenschaft sehr stark beeinflusst. Im Jahr erhielt er den Nobelpreis für Physik.
Für viele Menschen ist Albert Einstein. Heute, am Um die Jugendserie nicht zu verpassen. Schon lange warten die Franzosen auf. Die letzten Jahre seines Lebens lebte Einstein zurückgezogen in Princeton.
Bis zum Ende seines Lebens arbeitete er an einer neuen Theorie, die aber erfolglos blieb. Albert Einstein starb am April im Alter von 76 Jahren.
April wurde ein Film uraufgeführt, in dem Einsteins spezielle Relativitätstheorie mit vielen Animationen dem Publikum verständlich gemacht werden sollte.
Für Einstein war dieses Angebot so verlockend — Berlin war in dieser Zeit die Hochburg der Naturwissenschaft — dass er zusagte und im April mit seiner Familie nach Berlin zog.
Sie führten dazu, dass seine Frau im Juli mit. Das sehen wir heute überall. Jeder Depp erfindet irgendein Zitat. Elsas Geburtsname war Einstein.
Durch ihre erste Heirat mit Max Löwenthal nahm sie dessen Nachnamen an. Durch ihre zweite Heirat mit Albert Einstein erlangte sie ihren Geburtsnamen zurück.
Bevor die Profis am Montag wieder das Training aufnehmen, wurden bei Werder noch die letzten Abstimmungen getroffen, damit der Vorbereitungsplan endgültig steht.
Das ist aber eine extreme Vereinfachung, denn Einstein war weder der Erste, der die Äquivalenz von Masse und Energie erwog, noch hat er sie tatsächlich bewiesen.
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. They had an instant rapport, with Chaplin inviting Einstein and his wife, Elsa, to his home for dinner.
Chaplin said Einstein's outward persona, calm and gentle, seemed to conceal a "highly emotional temperament", from which came his "extraordinary intellectual energy".
Chaplin's film, City Lights , was to premiere a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests.
Walter Isaacson , Einstein's biographer, described this as "one of the most memorable scenes in the new era of celebrity". Chaplin speculated that it was "possibly used as kindling wood by the Nazis".
In February , while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.
While at American universities in early , he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
He and his wife Elsa returned to Europe in March, and during the trip, they learned that the German Reichstag passed the Enabling Act , which was passed on 23 March and transformed Hitler's government into a de facto legal dictatorship and that they would not be able to proceed to Berlin.
Later on they heard that their cottage was raided by the Nazis and his personal sailboat confiscated. Upon landing in Antwerp , Belgium on 28 March, he immediately went to the German consulate and surrendered his passport, formally renouncing his German citizenship.
In April , Einstein discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities.
A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by the German Student Union in the Nazi book burnings , with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead.
I must confess that the degree of their brutality and cowardice came as something of a surprise. Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany.
He rented a house in De Haan, Belgium, where he lived for a few months. In late July , he went to England for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval officer Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson , who had become friends with Einstein in the preceding years.
To protect Einstein, Locker-Lampson had two bodyguards watch over him at his secluded cabin, with a photo of them carrying shotguns and guarding Einstein, published in the Daily Herald on 24 July British historian Martin Gilbert notes that Churchill responded immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann , to Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and place them in British universities.
Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey 's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü , to whom he wrote in September requesting placement of unemployed German-Jewish scientists.
As a result of Einstein's letter, Jewish invitees to Turkey eventually totaled over "1, saved individuals". Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe.
In October , Einstein returned to the US and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study,   noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi Germany.
Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from several European universities, including Christ Church, Oxford where he stayed for three short periods between May and June and was offered a 5-year studentship,   but in , he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for citizenship.
Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in The two would take long walks together discussing their work.
Bruria Kaufman , his assistant, later became a physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics , both unsuccessfully.
The group's warnings were discounted. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U. Some say that as a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the US entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project.
For Einstein, "war was a disease Einstein became an American citizen in Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American culture when compared to Europe.
He recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as a result, individuals were encouraged, he said, to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.
He considered racism America's "worst disease",  seeing it as "handed down from one generation to the next". Du Bois and was prepared to testify on his behalf during his trial in In Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, a historically black college , where he was awarded an honorary degree.
Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant college degrees to African Americans ; alumni include Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall.
Einstein gave a speech about racism in America, adding, "I do not intend to be quiet about it. Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , which opened in and was among its first Board of Governors.
Earlier, in , he was asked by the biochemist and president of the World Zionist Organization , Chaim Weizmann , to help raise funds for the planned university.
Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria , which he called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's development.
Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age.
In his late journals he wrote: "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music.
I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music I get most joy in life out of music. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture.
According to conductor Leon Botstein , Einstein began playing when he was 5. However, he did not enjoy it at that age.
When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart , whereupon he became enamored of Mozart 's compositions and studied music more willingly.
Einstein taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically". He said that "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty. The examiner stated afterward that his playing was "remarkable and revealing of 'great insight'".
What struck the examiner, writes Botstein, was that Einstein "displayed a deep love of the music, a quality that was and remains in short supply.
Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student. Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on.
Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends.
Chamber music had also become a regular part of his social life while living in Bern, Zürich, and Berlin, where he played with Max Planck and his son, among others.
He is sometimes erroneously credited as the editor of the edition of the Köchel catalog of Mozart's work; that edition was prepared by Alfred Einstein , who may have been a distant relation.
In , while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet.
In , Einstein was one of the founding members of the German Democratic Party , a liberal party. Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi.
He exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him.
Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. And one life is enough for me. He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York ,  and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association , which publishes New Humanist in Britain.
For the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture , he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism.
He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity. In a one-and-a-half-page hand-written German-language letter to philosopher Eric Gutkind , dated Princeton, 3 January , fifteen months before his death, Einstein wrote: "The word God is for me nothing but the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of venerable but still rather primitive legends.
No interpretation, no matter how subtle, can for me change anything about this. On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want.
It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.
Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of Einstein as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn.
Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter.
The four papers are:. Einstein's first paper  submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena".
Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist.
His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.
Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations.
The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.
Einstein's " Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper "  "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" was received on 30 June and published 26 September of that same year.
It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics.
The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.
This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.
Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies. In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime.
Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity. General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.
General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.
As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory.
In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.
This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational redshift and deflection of light.
In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.
Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves ,   ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.
The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it.
By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.
While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible.
He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.
In June , the Entwurf 'draft' theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions.
After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken  and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.
As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe.
The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years.
This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe. Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of   and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".
The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated. In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe.
For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space. It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.
General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry.
The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason.
Einstein argued that this is true for a fundamental reason: the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was, in fact, the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.
This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in by Erwin Schrödinger and others.
In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges.
These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged.
These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.
In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.
This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein field equations , which describe how space curves.
The geodesic equation , which describes how particles move, may be derived from the Einstein field equations. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein field equations themselves, not by a new law.
So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.
In a paper,  Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr.
This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.
Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant.
He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.
In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator.
Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.
Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems.
After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.
Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made.
Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process.
Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.
Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik.
Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.
Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia.
In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern. This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N.
Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics. Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.
In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory".
Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.
The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.
In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.
This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.
Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.
This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of Einstein played a major role in developing quantum theory, beginning with his paper on the photoelectric effect.
However, he became displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after , despite its acceptance by other physicists. He was skeptical that the randomness of quantum mechanics was fundamental rather than the result of determinism, stating that God "is not playing at dice".
The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.
Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned to quantum mechanics, in particular to the question of its completeness, in the "EPR paper".
No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.
Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: 1 either the other particle had these properties already determined, or 2 the process of measuring the first particle instantaneously affected the reality of the position and momentum of the second particle.
Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance". Einstein's belief in local realism led him to assert that, while the correctness of quantum mechanics was not in question, it must be incomplete.
But as a physical principle, local realism was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J.
Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the picture of physics in which "particles are regarded as unconnected independent classical-like entities, each one being unable to communicate with the other after they have separated.
Although Einstein was wrong about local realism, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of its opposite, entangled quantum states , has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review.
It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.
In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".
In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.
Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.
Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research.
In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.
Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.
In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes.
This experiment needed to be sensitive because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.
Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose—Einstein gas by considering a box.
Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it.
This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas.
Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.
Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux.
While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in .
Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union.
Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university.
The Einstein rights were litigated in in a federal district court in California. Although the court initially held that the Einstein rights had expired,  that ruling was immediately appealed, and the decision was later vacated in its entirety.
The court's initial decision no longer has any legal impact or effect of any kind. The underlying claims between the parties in that lawsuit were ultimately settled.
The Einstein rights are enforceable, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the exclusive representative of those rights.
In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".
He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein.
Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true".
Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him. Einstein received numerous awards and honors, and in , he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Einstein disambiguation. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation. German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity Ulm , Kingdom of Württemberg , German Empire.
Princeton, New Jersey , United States. Elsa Löwenthal. Virtually all modern physics. See also: Einstein family. Main articles: Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics.
Main article: Critical opalescence. Main article: History of special relativity. Main article: History of general relativity.
See also: Theory of relativity and Einstein field equations. Main article: Physical cosmology. Main article: Stress—energy—momentum pseudotensor.
Main article: Einstein—Cartan theory. Main article: Einstein—Infeld—Hoffmann equations. Main article: Old quantum theory. Main article: Einstein solid.
Main article: Adiabatic invariant. Main article: Bose—Einstein statistics. Main article: Bohr—Einstein debates. Main article: Classical unified field theories.
Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations. Main article: Einstein—de Haas effect. Main article: Albert Einstein in popular culture.
Main article: Einstein's awards and honors. Einstein, Albert [Manuscript received: 16 December ]. Written at Zurich, Switzerland. Annalen der Physik in German.
Hoboken, New Jersey published 14 March Bibcode : AnP Written at Berne, Switzerland. Hoboken, New Jersey published 10 March Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei.
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Einstein's Writings. Princeton University Press. Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page.
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She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home.
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